Ombra mai fu

July 3, 2018

Handel’s haunting ode to a tree and its shade is this week’s theme. Here in London we are blessed with trees some might think excessive, in the front garden and the back, and are rejoicing in their shade. A great lanky cherry tree in the street and a magnolia soulangeana pushing out shoots of over a metre shade the south of the house, while our sycamore, the size of a Hyde Park plane, and our neighbour’s walnut, limes and apple overshadow the north. I have never appreciated them so much as in the past ten days – and by all accounts the next ten days as well.

We’ve all remarked on what a year it is for roses; the best I remember. But all plants like heat, it seems, given well-grounded roots. The front garden magnolia has not only grown prodigiously; it is in flower again at the beginning of July. Geraniums, campanulas and phlox are flowering fit to bust, Clematis viticella and Hydrangea seemanii are  excelling themselves; every plant in the garden has got the idea. I noticed six weeks ago that the Indian horse chestnuts along Kensington Road were stiff with their white candles, then in June that every lime tree was gilded all over with flowers, and the scent in the park is enough to make you hold your nose. Especially the regrettable smell of the sweet chestnuts.

Thank goodness the nights have been relatively cool so far. By opening front and back windows we achieve a through draught, which by three in the morning means we even need a blanket. The full moon has been flooding the balcony and the room with spectral light, and lighting the street so I can see the sleeping houses opposite through the trees, rustling gently in the breeze. It is the only movement, and for most of the time the only sound.  Three months ago the balcony was white with snow.

Patrice Fustier

June 24, 2018

The gardening world, particularly in France and Britain, had a moment of profound sadness when it learnt of the death this month of Patrice Fustier, the founder, with his wife Hélène, of the Journées des Plantes de Courson.  Courson is the chateau, in its bosky park just south west of Paris, where in the 1980s they started a modest fair for gardeners that can truly be said to have re-established gardening as an art in the eyes of France. There had been a long period when few things were less fashionable to the Parisian monde.  A scattering of chatelains cared about their gardens. They were, it seemed, ones with wider interests than most and connections in Britain or the Low Countries. To risk a wild generalisation, to the rest the most important part of the garden was the potager – and very right, too, I hear you say.

The Fustiers changed all that. Suddenly, it seemed within a couple of years, they were drawing fashionable crowds. They invited France’s then-few specialist plant nurseries to set up stands and British experts to give talks. Roy Lancaster was one of the first and most regular. Suddenly green wellies and Land Rovers became chic. France was conquered, or reconquered, by the goddess Flora, or perhaps Saint Dorothy and Saint Fiacre, gardening’s two patron saints. The message spread that orderly allées and well-raked gravel were not enough – nor even productive rows of artichokes and beans. Unusual plants began to take the place of rose bushes and geraniums. Garden guides listed notable places to visit. What had been a peculiarly British culture, epitomised by the National Gardens Scheme, crossed the Channel.

Patrice was a man of enormous charm, kindness and resolution. He overcame the terrible results of a serious accident in his relative youth to achieve a magnificently ambitious goal. Three years ago the Fustiers masterminded the transfer of the Journées des Plantes from the relatively limited arena of Courson to the majestic surroundings of Chantilly, where they are now installed each May and October, France’s equivalent of Chelsea but with a touch of the amateur that seems almost more English. Patrice deserves a lasting memorial. He certainly has one in the Journées des Plantes.

Unpredictable

June 23, 2018

Total colour control at Woolton Hill

What precise algorithm of sun and rain, of isobars and daytime averages, gave the auxins their instructions and the roots their rations we shall never know, but the roses read it, and so did all the other plants that have made this spring the floweriest in memory – at least in the south. Most noticeable of all were the trees; the Indian horse chestnuts lining Kensington Road a wall of white flowers in June, lime trees gilded all over with flowers, their scent almost painfully powerful.

Gardeners’ memories of the weather are not exactly reliable; nor are accurate recent records easy to find. Go to the Met Office and all you find is forecasts (with the same proviso about reliability). Backcasts, as it were, are seemingly either binned or archived where access is awkward. We all remember a proper winter this year, after years of wondering whether that chilly weekend was supposed to count. Not a real old-fashioned one, but enough to make the headlines as The Beast from the East.

Six months ago I was speculating about the future of olive trees in London, which will be challenging Tuscany one of these days. I haven’t seen one tree damaged, nor even the Trachelospermum that has become the signature plant of Kensington and Chelsea. Hammersmith, too, I noted the other day, where the council has seen fit to plant a hedge of it in boxes down the middle of Hammersmith Grove by the tube station. Picture it, unprotected, when the Beast returns.

The effect, in any case, of whatever conditions attained in the garden in the past twelve months has upset all sorts of calculations, including my resolve to bring some discipline into our colour palette. Blue, white, a smattering of cream and a few daring moments of polite pink, even a glint of silver, was my thoroughly conservative intention (it’s a rather small garden). Then our neighbour’s startling red roses shot up above the wall, seemingly on stilts, flopped down into space I so primly regard as mine, and Eureka. The garden burst into calypso. Roses cabbage-size, moreover, tossing their petals over paths, hedges and beds. Discipline gone; control lost. When I get my breath back I shall look at those colour charts again.

 

Home grown

June 21, 2018

There are more vines in England today than ever before in history. (Unfortunately the same thing also applies to deer). 1.5 million more vines are being planted this year, adding to the 6,200 acres we. have already. Climate change shares the credit for this, but new-found confidence in English sparkling wine is the real driver.  The internet has been busy with reports of vines flowering in early June, when late June to July is the normal period here. Early flowering means early ripening. It takes, on average, 100 days from the forming of a grape to its maturity, so a mid-June birthday for a grape means it is ready to pick in late September, when the chances of good weather are still high. At the normal time (for England) of a mid-October vintage it stands a good chance of being cold and rainy.

The grape vine is a tough and persistent plant. Why is it that in a Mediterranean landscape in summer often the only green thing in sight is a vineyard? Once they are established, after say five years, vine roots will have found supplies of moisture deep in the ground. In old vineyards they have been found as much as fifty feet underground.

I have just been in one of the most perfect vineyards on earth, terraced high above the village of Mad in the Zemplen foothills, the soil red-brown crumbly clay with pale fist-size stones. The vines, with the big roundish leaves characteristic of Furmint, are dark green, matching a fig tree sprawled against a ten-foot wall of stones picked from the vineyard. The crop of pale-green young berries in loose clusters is prodigious after a precocious and perfect flowering. Women in dungarees and headscarves are already thinning the crop by half, snipping off alternate bunches and leaving them on the ground. The vine trunks are prodigious, too: gnarled twisted creatures half a century old, divided at knee-height to form a double cordon pinned to the first of three wires. The soil is being covered with long leafy shoots, too, as the canopy is sheared back and the top shoots persuaded between the two upper wires.

The soil here and its stones are the product of ancient volcanic geysers that bubbled and burst millions of years ago, leaving an amazing variety of minerals; rhyolite, geolite, bentonite, some hard as pumice, others soft enough for the vine-roots to go down and down and find their water-supply. A rainstorm means nothing here, where the supply of percolated water is infinite. Hence the health of these vines, their wealth of fruit, and the quality of the wine, vigorous, fresh, flowery and long-lived, that they produce: Tokaji.

Will England ever produce such world-famous wines? Judging by the quality of the best bubbly we’ve made after a mere thirty years or so in the game, I’m sure of it.

The Dove tree

June 4, 2018

Davidia involucrata at Hatfield House, herts

Imperious manners

June 1, 2018

One of the maddenii series (I think) at St Paul’s, Waldenbury

Rhodies (it takes chutzpah to call them that) were never my thing until some acid soil came my way. I’m afraid we’re all more interested in things we can join in ourselves. I gave myself an intensive course in them when I was writing The Principles of Gardening, even devising a family tree that probably provoked giggles in Rhodoland. But that was 40 years ago. I said then that the past hundred years (i.e. the 1870s-1970s) might well be called The Erica Dynasty; the family had imposed two whole new fashions of gardening, the heather garden and the woodland garden, that were still going strong when I wrote.

They haven’t died. Heathers may not have the hold they had (nor the ‘dwarf ‘ conifers that were usually married to them). Woodlands on sandy soil are still being adorned with luscious flowers, but the vogue is no longer dominant. If the Chelsea Flower Show is an indicator, the genus rhododendron has been relegated. I wrote then that “they have imperious manners. They are not good mixers. They grow and look best in the company of their own kind.” With something like 800 species that should not be a problem – except to a gardener trying to keep track of them, and above all of their hybridization.

My rather pedagogic, let’s-start-from-basics approach of the 1970s still holds good, but when you are in the thick of it, with a mixture of botanical names and nursery cultivars whizzing about, made no easier by the botanists’ concepts of ‘series’ and ‘grex’, it is tempting to point to a juicy pink flower and say ‘that’ll do’. You’ll be missing a lot, though: the scary adventures of Robert Fortune, the gritty thoroughness of E.H.Wilson, the patient ingenuity of such breeders as Waterer, Aberconway and de Rothschild in combining characters deemed garden-worthy. Finally bringing branches of improbable sumptuousness to battle for gongs in Vincent Square.

I have been pretty much at the ‘that’ll do’ stage; given our daughter’s suggestively acidic corner of the New Forest to adorn. We have inherited some shiny green mounds of sawn-off rhodies all suspected of being the dreaded ‘ponticum’ – or even the positively fearsome ‘super-ponticum.’ The dread comes from our Welsh forest, (or anyone’s forest anywhere), where R. ponticum is indeed a pest, seeding and thriving at an embarrassing rate where the aim is clean, airy, unencumbered trees. Ponticum rapidly produces the dark airless conditions where Phytophthora flourishes. Having lost a whole larch plantation to it, anything phytophthera-friendly is taboo. The government is obliged to give foresters grants to poison the pest.

These few Hampshire acres, though, are different. The perceived threat here is bambi, not rhodies. In abstract terms, the space under our tall oaks needs volumes to shape and enclose its voids. You can see the deer from one end to the other. My job is to furnish it – with evergreen leaves, and sumptuous flowers.

Hanoverian summer

June 1, 2018

‘Three fine days and a thunderstorm’. I always wonder why this famous definition of an English summer is attributed to King George II, with the specific date of 1730 attached. He became King of England (as well as Duke of Brunswick) in 1727. Both 1730 and 1731 were famously hot summers; they apparently held the record for summer heat until 2006 (July 2006 was the warmest month in Britain since records began) – and then August was one of the cloudiest and wettest. Are we on to something here? Is this what happened in 1730? Maybe the new king was commenting on the actual weather in a very English way – even if there were far more than three fine days. More to the point, though, is why does this happen (as it just has this week)?

Here is a meteorological answer: a heat wave warms the sea. A warmer sea evaporates faster. The wetter atmosphere generates areas of low pressure. Moist air rises, cools, and dumps as rain. Are three hot days enough? They certainly seemed to be this week – and who would argue with the king?

Stop Press

May 22, 2018

The worst photo of the best garden

 The corollary to fewer exhibitors at Chelsea is a little more space to breathe, at least in the Pavilion, if not round the show gardens: fewer means more necks craned round each.

A review of Trad’s annual Best Garden Award over many years betrays his partiality for the traditional, the nostalgic….. and specially for fake landscapes; reproductions of far-away or long-ago places. You will, probably rightly, never get the ultimate medal for chunk of seaside or farmland transplanted to Chelsea; modernity is deemed more relevant. How many gardeners actually prefer concrete to rock, or steel to wood, is an unanswered question. This one is still moved by a beautifully-made dry stone wall or stream among wild-flowers, the sort of thing that Mark Gregory created so convincingly this year for Welcome to Yorkshire. But perhaps this is too easy (however expensive) to imagine and bring off.

Chris Beardshaw’s garden for the N.S.P.C.C was wonderfully immersive, calm and even mysterious, glimpsed through the five peeling grey trunks of a magnificent River birch, Betula nigra, that travelled, he said, from north Germany, 8 tons of it, swaddled and cradled so that not a leaf was bruised. I see (next day) that it was voted the best by the (other) judges.

Several gardens showed off what seems to be an advance in tree-moving technology. On the Monument Stand in the Pavilion Tom Stewart-Smith and Crocus (who seem to have their green thumbprints on half the show) have whisked up a lime tree as tall as the monument itself. They must soon reach the limit to the size of tree you can take by road.

You get a long side view of the first site on the Main Avenue, the one that greets you as you arrive. It begs for architecture, and seems to work well with airy evocations of arid sun-baked places. Sarah Price designed such a scene for the main sponsor of the Show, M&G Investments, using stark adobe walls and bright patches of drought-resisting plants with admirable restraint. It was no surprise to see the Crocus signature here, too.

Trad has never given a gong to the best nursery stand showing its plants in the Pavilion. There is too much variety, and too much expertise on show to single one out. Besides, it is a matter of taste. Peter Beale’s Roses always draw one across the tent, but so do Raymond Emison’s clematis, Blom’s tulips, Kelway’s peonies, Norfield’s maples, Bowden’s ferns (tree ferns seem to be in fashion this year), Lockyer’s auriculas, and the unfamiliar exotic introductions of the Wynn-Joneses of Crug Farm Plants.

And am I deceived in thinking the proportion of plants (and gardens) to infinitely-assorted hardware goes down gradually year by year?

Hugh’s Gardening Books

Trees

Trees was first published in 1973 as The International Book of Trees, two years after The World Atlas of Wine….

Hugh’s Wine Books

Hugh Johnson’s Pocket Wine Book

I wrote my first Pocket Wine Book in 1977, was quite surprised to be asked to revise it in 1978,…

Flower of the Week

Rosa ‘Chapeau de Napoléon’

Friends of Trad

John Grimshaw’s Garden Diary