Fanny Wilkinson

November 13, 2021

Where Fanny first gardened

The blue plaque department of English Heritage could be confused. It has two applications to deal with for the same person: Fanny Wilkinson. One is for a house in Bloomsbury, the other for Middlethorpe Hall at York. Few people today know who Fanny was, but her story is worth telling, even repeating. She was the first professional landscape gardener of her sex.

Middlethorpe is where she learnt to garden; her father’s very handsome Yorkshire house, which is now a hotel owned by and run for the benefit of the National Trust, along with two others of equal beauty: Hartwell House near Aylesbury and Bodysgallen at Llandudno. The garden at Middlethorpe is still exceptional, intimate, productive and beautifully kept. Middlethorpe is also remembered as the one-time home of the prototype feminist, the diarist who introduced vaccination for smallpox, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu.

Fanny’s London address in Shaftesbury Avenue is gardenless, but her plaque celebrates her employment to design and make no less than 75 public gardens in London, principally in areas that sadly needed the blessing of greenery. Her principal employer was the Metropolitan Public Gardens Association, founded in 1882 by Lord Brabazon (later Lord Meath) in the general movement to improve the lives of the poor whose patron saint, or one of them, was Octavia Hill. The National Trust was another of Hill’s pioneering projects.

Fanny Wilkinson was no paper designer. She did more than the office work, surveying sites, persuading sponsors, finding materials, employing contractors and spending days on site supervising navvies as well as gardeners, a conspicuous role for a young woman in those days.

Many of her creations still exist. Myatt’s Fields in Camberwell is one of the biggest, at 14 acres. Vauxhall Gardens is another. Many were in the East End, and many former burial grounds. Economy and easy maintenance were priorities, so paths were often asphalt, and Fanny must have planted hundreds of plane trees. It was only thirty years or so since the revolutionary Birkenhead Park was designed by Joseph Paxton (and inspired Olmsted in making Central Park, New York). Who could be more deserving of a plaque – or two – than a woman who motivated and created so many urban oases?

Kew celebrates Japan

October 8, 2021

à la japonaise

A bright sunny day yesterday brought out the crowds at Kew. The cafes always seem to be the main attraction; the grand central borders drew a desultory crowd, but you are never jostled in the arboretum, the rock garden, or in the newly-ordered plant family beds. On each visit I struggle to get my head round its gloss on DNA, with limited success. Admittedly, until leaves start to turn, it is a quiet gardening moment. Drifts of cyclamen are the brightest spots, and the yellow of rudbeckia and mauve of asters dominate the main borders.

The Temperate House was celebrating Japan, with a jolly installation of paper and streamers, high in its domes, with haikus and bonsai and massed white, yellow and red chrysanthemums that represent sunrise, though rather modestly by Japanese standards. The Japanese celebrate the imperial flower with extravagance of artifice that has no equivalent in the West.

Tresco, Glamis, Alnwick

October 3, 2021

Home from a salty fortnight that managed to embrace three great gardens. Tresco (easy, it’s on the sea), Glamis, and Alnwick. Transport by the luxurious Island Sky, Noble Caledonia’s Expedition ship carrying a hundred passengers and equipped with Zodiacs for landing on islands.

Tresco is colour, Glamis history and Alnwick water – but much more than its famous fountains and grand cascade. Our previous visit, twenty years ago, saw it just constructed and newly planted. Today in maturity its hydraulic spectacles draw thousands – too many for quiet enjoyment – but its planting shows signs of genius.

The reward of climbing the grand staircase beside the repeated eruptions of water is the entrance to the walled garden. Water is also important here, but in the pastoral mode of quiet pools and rills. among broad beds brimming with plants to force a gardener’s attention. Fifteen-foot walls and pergolas twice the height of the common kind give scope for shrubs and climbers we usually see tamed to ‘manageable’ sizes to show their full potential. Plants conventionally doled out in threes and fives form king-size drifts. I have not seen such a clump of my favourite, Kirengeshoma palmata, with its sleepy yellow buds lolling among grey-green maple leaves, outside its native Japan. A mass of spires unknown to me, palest pink exclamation from a foam of grey-purple leaves turned out to be Cimicifuga ‘Brunette’. Hydrangea paniculata in platoons and lace-caps in legions brim over hornbeam hedges. Roses on the whole were late-season piano; it was early autumn in berries and leaves, but the scope, generosity and originality of the planting was almost overwhelming. And it was followed by a challenge: a maze entirely of bamboo, tall plants arching overhead to make a Stygian tunnel with enough twists and bifurcations to give the nervous worrying moments.

The garden at Glamis (a coach-trip from the port of Montrose) matches the towering castle in size. The park is regal and the trees in the pinetum beside the quiet Dean Water majestic. Its most memorable scene was an inspirational deployment of Verbena bonariensis, usually seen as a sneaky interloper here and there, but at Glamis, full beds a cricket-pitch long and broad, a purple mass to make you pause. Sadly someone had tricked up the edges with yellow and red dahlias, a chromatic howler it was hard to forgive.

Rhaeadr Ddu

September 4, 2021

Falling, crashing, roaring, spraying water will always have a public. I read somewhere that cascades, fountains, breaking waves and anywhere water is violently fragmented create negative ions (don’t ask me more) that feel good and stimulate your brain. Case – as far as I’m concerned – proved. I assume it also applies to the bubbles in champagne.

Travelling for Pleasure is a book by Tony Newbery about the exploration of Snowdonia by artists and miscellaneous Romantics in the late 18th and early 19th centuries There were poets and painters on the lookout for the perfectly Picturesque view, as defined by William Gilpin. ‘Just a few yards to your right, to include that mossy stump’. A fair number of preachers took to these tracks too, rain or, occasionally, shine. Roads were rudimentary and inns appalling, but it was worth it for the scenery (variously described as ‘sublime’ or ‘awful’) of mountain, moor, forest and particularly, waterfalls. The early tourists made competitive comparisons, scoring them for setting, height, volume of water (and noise), accessibility and general air of romance.

There is a different competition these days: kayak potential. If you can paddle to the edge and drop twenty feet into a deep pool you have an alpha fall. Thirty feet is pretty sensational.

One of my favourites (not for kayaking) is the Black Falls (Rhaeader Ddu in Welsh) near Ganllwyd on the edge of the huge forest of Coed y Brenin. It is not huge; it just plunges in beautiful oak and beech and birch woodland over and through a great granite jumble. It has had its admirers since some anonymous Romantic installed a stone slab overlooking it engraved with a Latin verse and its translation by Thomas Gray (of the Elegy in a Country Churchyard). Could it have been Gray? I have sat in wonder watching the local lads take the plunge in their kayaks, steering to the edge of an upper pool , then disappearing in white water before bobbing up from the depths of the black pool below.

There are bigger and noisier falls in the forest around but none so aesthetically as well as athletically pleasing. To drink sparkling wine in the cocoon of its sound is one of the high romantic pleasures.

TripAdvisor of the time: If ever you go to Dolgellau, Don’t say at the Lion Hotel. There is nothing to put in your bellau, and no one to answer the bell.

An upgrade

August 31, 2021

I have just had two cataract ops (or ‘procedures’, to use the proper medical term), and I’m dazzled. Literally, if I rashly go out in full sunlight, but metaphorically most of the time. I realise that for years I’ve been lit by a mere 40 watt bulb. Now it’s a hundred. The procedures were four months apart, and I could scarcely believe that such a radical improvement could be so quickly and painlessly achieved. The first made me realise how there had been a yellow cast in that eye. It disappeared like a coat of old varnish from a painting. By shutting one eye I could admire the contrast. Now, with two eyes refreshed, I see the world unvarnished, and realise what I’d been missing.

The whiteness of white was the first surprise, and is still the biggest difference between the old vision and the new. All colours are brighter – or more distinct. A single clematis flower emerging from a tangle on the wall shocked me with its piquant, singing purple – a colour I don’t remember ever seeing in the garden before. A white-variegated dogwood is now as uplifting a sight as a ballooning spinnaker. The light green ovals of new leaves on the resurging magnolia in the street are eye-catchers, every one of them.

Perhaps it’s just as well that August has been oppressed with one of our unbudging zones of high pressure, a grey lid that brings a cold north wind sneaking under its edges for weeks on end. It clears at night, I don’t know why, but as the moon rides up the sky the lid of cloud often dissipates, and the garden seems brighter than in the grey-lidded day.

Sea Garden

August 12, 2021

Birders with long lenses congregate on the saltmarshes that run from Lymington to Milford-on-Sea. The Solent way follows the low-lying coast facing Yarmouth in the Isle of Wight. The Yarmouth ferries, looking like black gondolas carrying white Indian temples, criss-cross the water. Cattle wade with egrets and hundreds of geese in the shallow lagoons. In July the sea-fringe was embroidered with a dozen different flowers. The sea is in a trance, the surface is a mirror for the flowers.

Purple sea lavender forms rafts in the shallows between low-and-high-water marks. Its intricate flowers rise above salad-green leaves. Samphire covers the sea-washed flats, and Golden Samphire, bold upright tufts breaking into yellow flowers, the drier higher ground. Yarrow and wild carrot dot it with white, ragwort, tall and bushy, and bristly ox-tongue with yellow, teasel and low-lying rugosa roses with pale purple.

I know this path, and these marshes, in all seasons. In summer the deep channel is crowded with yachts at their moorings. The mystery is the owners of these expensive conveyances who seem never to sail them. They sit all summer, moving only with the tides. In winter there is no colour except in the sky, with lingering sunsets followed by the silver moon-track across the Solent and the red blinking of the lighthouse at the Needles.

In the 1830s Colonel Peter Hawker, a veteran of the Peninsular War, made wild-fowling here an industry, going out with his punt-gun at dawn, he and his man pushing the punt through the mud up to their waists, and recording killing 200 wigeon with a single blast of his blunderbuss. His diaries make good reading, not just about shooting; he invented a new method of teaching the piano, and travelled to Paris to teach. Wigeon? You’d be lucky to see twenty today.


August 11, 2021

Could anyone calculate the tonnage of new leaves in our parks since it started to rain last week? Summer rain is of one of nature’s greatest luxuries; its first pitter-patter on a warm day one of its most delicious sounds. After a long drought it feels like the all-clear. Emergency over.

After nearly two weeks of daily rain the consolation, as you shake out your umbrella, is that ponds are brimming, streams are burbling, and autumn will be lush and leafy. The blue bags our London borough provides for garden rubbish are already full, waiting for their Wednesday collection. I’ve been snipping the surging shorts as never before, emptying saucers under the pots every day, watching what looks like Jack’s Beanstalk: Verbena bonariensis has overtaken the winter cherry, poking its flowers out through its branches to look down smugly on a mere tree. At midnight in the garden the sounds of rain and the constant splash into our little tank shuts out the world.

The year so far has borne out everything the boffins have predicted about global warming, though the extremes here have been more wet than warm. I feel almost guilty talking to friends in California, where the fire department is demanding firebreaks 200 yards wide – some of them through vineyards, which are relatively incombustible, compared with forest and brush. I fear wine is already being affected by warmer weather – not always for the better. If something is perfect, as great wines can be, how can it be improved?

Walking in the Shade

July 22, 2021

A week of temperatures over 80 old-fashioned degrees. It’s tempting to stay at home and read. Sun never reaches the terrace by the kitchen door; I hose down the ferns in their pots and sit back in the transat. Do you know the expression? One of those chaises longues on the decks of transatlantique liners (French, First Class).

When I do sally out I plan my course to avoid walking in the sun. There is a sort of science to it, and certainly ground rules. Be back home by eleven, and ten if possible. Avoid streets running north/south for two hours either side of noon, and east/west streets as the sun begins to settle in the west, often its most burning time.

Trees can be your best ally, but don’t rely on them. There will be gaps, and little trees like flowering cherries are not ideal. Planes, limes or horse chestnuts are best. Tall buildings close to the street give the most certain shade (but very tall ones can cause gusty winds). Houses with front gardens stand too far back to be much help, unless their gardens have rather tall trees.

When you turn a corner sum up which side of the new street offers more shade, even if it’s not on your direct route – and be prepared to cross the road as often as necessary to avoid unshaded stretches of pavement.

Key to the whole thing is registering where the sun is in the sky, and where it’s going. (To the right, if you haven’t noticed). Plan your route to have it on your back, rather than in your eyes, as much as possible; too bad if your destination is in the west, or in the early morning, the east.

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